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Orthognathic (Jaw) Surgery | Corrective Jaw Surgery | Oral …

Corrective jaw surgery, or orthognathic surgery, is performed by Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons to correct a wide range of minor and major skeletal and dental irregularities, including the misalignment of jaws and teeth, which, in turn, can improve chewing, speaking and breathing. While the patients appearance may be dramatically enhanced as a result of their surgery, orthognathic surgery is performed to correct functional problems.

Following are some of the conditions that may indicate the need for corrective jaw surgery:

People who may benefit from corrective jaw surgery include those with an improper bite resulting from misaligned teeth and/or jaws. In some cases, the upper and lower jaws may grow at different rates. Injuries and birth defects may also affect jaw alignment. While orthodontics can usually correct bite, or occlusion, problems when only the teeth are misaligned, corrective jaw surgery may be necessary to correct misalignment of the jaws.

Your dentist, orthodontist and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon will work together to determine whether you are a candidate for corrective jaw, or orthognathic, surgery. The Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon determines which corrective jaw surgical procedure is appropriate and performs the actual surgery. It is important to understand that your treatment, which will probably include orthodontics before and after surgery, may take several years to complete. Your Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon and orthodontist understand that this is a long-term commitment for you and your family.They will try to realistically estimate the time required for your treatment.

Corrective jaw surgery may reposition all or part of the upper jaw, lower jaw and chin. When you are fully informed about your case and your treatment options, you and your dental team will determine the course of treatment that is best for you.

Correcting an Open Bite: Some of the bone in the upper tooth-bearing portion of the jaw is removed. The upper jaw is then secured in position with plates and screws.

Correcting a Protruding Lower Jaw:The bone in the rear portion of the jaw is separated from the front portion and modified so that the tooth-bearing portion of the lower jaw can be moved back for proper alignment.

Correcting a Receding Lower Jaw or Weak Chin:The bone in the lower portion of the jaw is separated from its base and modified. The tooth-bearing portion of the lower jaw and a portion of the chin are repositioned forward.

Before your surgery, orthodontic braces move the teeth into a new position. Because your teeth are being moved into a position that will fit together after surgery, you may at first think your bite is getting worse rather than better. When your Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon repositions your jaws during surgery, however, your teeth should fit together properly.

As your pre-surgical orthodontic treatment nears completion, additional or updated records, including x-rays, pictures and models of your teeth, may be taken to help guide your surgery.

Depending on the procedure, corrective jaw surgery may be performed under general anesthesia in a hospital, an ambulatory surgical center or in the oral and maxillofacial surgery office. Surgery may take from one to several hours to complete.

Your Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon will reposition the jawbones in accordance with your specific needs. In some cases, bone may be added, taken away or reshaped. Surgical plates, screws, wires and rubber bands may be used to hold your jaws in their new positions. Incisions are usually made inside the mouth to reduce visible scarring; however, some cases do require small incisions outside of the mouth. When this is necessary, care is taken to minimize their appearance.

After surgery, your surgeon will provide instructions for a modified diet, which may include solids and liquids, as well as a schedule for transitioning to a normal diet. You may also be asked to refrain from using tobacco products and avoid strenuous physical activity.

Pain following corrective jaw surgery is easily controlled with medication and patients are generally able to return to work or school from one to three weeks after surgery, depending on how they are feeling. While the initial healing phase is about six weeks, complete healing of the jaws takes between nine and 12 months.

Corrective jaw surgery moves your teeth and jaws into positions that are more balanced, functional and healthy. Although the goal of this surgery is to improve your bite and function, some patients also experience enhancements to their appearance and speech. The results of corrective jaw surgery can have a dramatic and positive effect on many aspects of your life. So make the most of the new you!

The information provided here is not intended as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. It is provided to help you communicate effectively with your oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Always seek the advice of your oral and maxillofacial surgeon regarding an oral health concern.

The American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS), the professional organization representing more than 9,000 oral and maxillofacial surgeons in the United States, supports its members ability to practice their specialty through education, research and advocacy. AAOMS members comply with rigorous continuing education requirements and submit to periodic office examinations, ensuring the public that all office procedures and personnel meet stringent national standards.

2006-2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS). All rights reserved.

Reprinted with permission from American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

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What is a Brachioplasty? Doctor Answers, Tips – RealSelf

Thank you for your question regarding brachioplasty.

“Brachio” comes from the Greek language indicating upper arm. “Plasty” comes from the Greek language indicating “to mold or to form”. Therefore, brachioplasty is molding or re-shaping of the upper arm.

There are several different types of brachioplasties. Some patients have minimal fat deposits in the upper arm and wish for improved arm contouring. These patients have excellent skin tone. These patients are classified has Type 1 arms. Often, these patients can be treated with liposuction alone.

Type 2 patients have excess skin and fat in the upper 1/3 to 1/2 of the upper arm. In the lower 1/2 or lower 2/3 of the arm, these patients have excellent skin tone and minimal arm fat. These patients can be treated with a crescent brachioplasty or a limited T-brachioplasty . In the crescent brachioplasty, upper arm skin and fat is removed in a crescent fashion. This arm scar is usually well hidden in the axillae. In the limited T-brachioplasty, a crescent area of skin and fat is removed in the armpit. The incision is also extended approximately 2 to 4 inches down the inner arm. The resulting scar looks like the letter “T”.

Type 3 patients have excess arm skin and fat from the armpit to the elbow. These patients require a longitudinal medial arm lift. During this procedure, an elliptical area of arm skin and fat is removed from the inner arm. To maximize scar concealment, the incision should be placed between the biceps and triceps.

Type 4 patients have excess skin and fat of the upper arm and forearm. These patients require an incision from the axilla to the wrist. Excess skin and fat is removed from the upper arm and lateral forearm.

Thank you for your question regarding brachioplasty or arm lift.If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact my office.

Sincerely, Dr. Katzen

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What is a Brachioplasty? Doctor Answers, Tips – RealSelf

Review of HCG for Weight Loss: Injections and Drops

The Promise

Take a “natural” hormone the body makes during pregnancy — and lose a lot of weight? That’s the promise that’s turned the hCG Diet — named after that hormone — into a craze that just won’t quit. If you also go on an ultra-low-calorie diet, backers claim, hCG can reset your metabolism so you lose as much as a pound a day without feeling hungry or weak.

Here’s what the science says: Any super-low-cal diet will result in weight loss. Most studies have found that hCG (stands for human chorionic gonadotropin) has nothing to do with it.

The hCG diet limits you to 500 calories a day for 8 weeks while taking hCG, either by getting a shot or by taking a homeopathic product, such as oral drops, pellets, or sprays, which you can buy at the store.

None of this is approved by the FDA for weight loss. The shots themselves are legal, as long as a health care provider gives them to you. (They’re approved to treat fertility issues.) But over-the-counter hCG products are not. The FDA has sent warning letters to several companies that market homeopathic hCG products.

You won’t be eating much. The diet lets you have two meals a day, lunch and dinner. Each meal has to include one protein, one vegetable, one bread, and one fruit.

You can broil or grill veal, beef, chicken breast, fresh white fish, lobster, crab, or shrimp as long you dont eat any visible fat. No salmon, eel, tuna, herring, or dried or pickled fish are allowed.

Vegetable choices include spinach, chard, chicory, beet greens, green salad, tomatoes, celery, fennel, onions, red radishes, cucumbers, asparagus, and cabbage.

Bread can be one breadstick or one piece of melba toast.

For fruit, you can choose an orange, an apple, a handful of strawberries, or half a grapefruit. The diet allows as much water, coffee, and tea as you want. You can also have up to 1 tablespoon of milk per day.

You can use sugar substitutes but not sugar to sweeten drinks. Butter and oils aren’t allowed.

It’s very hard to stick with the strict calorie limit. Not only is it uncomfortable to live on just 500 calories a day, it can be dangerous. Its impossible to meet all your nutritional needs on so few calories. You may not get enough protein, either. If you’re getting less than 1,200 calories a day, it’s going to be challenging to get enough vitamins and minerals without supplements.

Doctors sometimes recommend a very-low-calorie diet (under 1,000 calories per day) if someone is obese and has a medical condition such as high blood pressure, but these diets are always carefully supervised by a doctor.

Vegetarians and vegans: Its fans say anyone can follow the hCG diet. But that doesnt mean its safe, especially for vegetarians. The diet’s creators say that vegetarians would have to drink extra skim milk to make up for not getting protein from meat and other sources. Because it includes dairy, it’s not a vegan diet.

Gluten-free: This isn’t a gluten-free diet.


American Society of Bariatric Physicians: Use of HCG in the Treatment of Obesity.

Bosch, B. South African Medical Journal, Feb. 18, 1990.

HCG Diet Council: The Original HCG Simeons Diet, Pounds & Inches: A New Approach to Obesity.

Birmingham, C. Canadian Medical Association Journal, May 15, 1983.

Heather Mangieri, RDN, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration: For Consumers: HCG Diet Products Are Illegal, Questions and Answers on HCG Products for Weight Loss.

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Review of HCG for Weight Loss: Injections and Drops

HCG Diet | Rx HCG Diet Program | HCG Diet Info

What is HCG?

HCG stands for Human Chorionic Gonadotropin and is a glycoprotein composed of 244 amino acids.

The use of HCG for weight loss was pioneered by British endocrinologist A.T.W. Simeons while studying pregnant woman on an extremely low calorie diet in India in the 1950s. He thought it was a medical oxymoron that pregnant women in a 3rd world country just devastated by war, would walk everywhere, work and eat just a handful of calories produce normal weight and normal height babies. His medical logic determined that these babies should be malnourished. This led him to discover that when a woman is pregnant, her body produces HCG. Also while in India, Dr. Simeons treated fat boys with pituitary problems with low doses of HCG. He observed both lost fat rather than lean muscle tissue.

How does the HCG Diet work?

HCG mobilizes the adipose tissue (abnormal fat). There are 3 types of fat.

A pregnant womans body will produce over 1 million IU (International Units) of HCG to mobilize the abnormal fat full of vitamins, minerals and nutrients to nourish the unborn fetus. Dr. Simeons wrote, In pregnancy it would be most undesirable if the fetus were offered ample food only when there is a high influx from the intestinal tract. Ideal nutritional conditions for the fetus can only be achieved when the mothers blood is continually saturated with food, regardless of whether she eats or not, as otherwise a period of starvation might hamper the steady growth of the embryo.

The use of HCG in conjunction with VLCD (Very Low Calorie Diet) produces weight loss but more specifically, fat loss. The HCG Diet will reshape your body. Your body needs reserve and structural fat but does not need abnormal fat to survive. By using HCG, your body releases the unlocked calories and nutrients stored in your abnormal fat. Therefore, HCG used with VLCD will produce not only weight loss but fat loss.

Can men do the HCG Diet?

Dr. Simeons also wrote, When a male patient hears that he is about to be put into a condition which in some respects resembles pregnancy, he is usually shocked and horrified. The physician must therefore carefully explain that this does not mean that he will be feminized and that HCG in no way interferes with his sex. He must be made to understand that in the interest of the propagation of the species nature provides for a perfect functioning of the regulatory headquarters in the diencephalon during pregnancy and that we are merely using this natural safeguard as a means of correcting the diencephalic disorder which is responsible for his overweight.

Why cant I just do the low calorie diet without HCG?

Well, if just reducing calories is the solution to overweight and obesity then why hasnt worked in the past? Lets face it; if youre investigating the HCG Diet then Id say youve tried other diets in the past without the desired results. There are 2 basic reasons one should avoid just reducing calories to lose weight.

These 2 basic reasons are why you have not been successful by reducing calories in the past. A combination of HCG and VLCD can mobilize and reduce your abnormal fat.

Call us to get started on losing up to 1 pound of FAT per day.

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The Mini Rhytidectomy | SpringerLink


First Online: 03 March 2014

A technique is described in which superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) is plicated from the deep temporal fascia above the zygoma to the level of the earlobe. This procedure requires only an extended preauricular incision. The neck is dealt with by liposuction. This technique is ideally suited to the younger patient requesting facelift and is based on a sound understanding of the anatomy of SMAS. The outcome of 35 patients who underwent this procedure during a 3.5-year period are described. There were no cases of facial nerve paresis or hair loss. There were no cases of skin necrosis but two patients developed small hematomas and one patient complained of a stretched preauricular scar. The mini facelift leads to a satisfactory result in the younger patient requesting rhytidectomy. The technique is simple and safe and can easily be performed on an ambulatory basis. Complications are uncommon and of a minor nature.

Key words: Mini rhytidectomySMAS plication

Unable to display preview.Download preview PDF.

Springer-Verlag New York Inc.1997

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Face Lift (Rhytidectomy) | Saint James Hospital Malta

Look and feel your best with a more youthful, rejuvenated facial appearance

What is a Face Lift (Rhytidectomy)?

A face lift, or rhytidectomy, is a surgical procedure aimed at reducing the visible signs of ageing on ones face. It can help reduce wrinkles, firm up sagging skin, eliminate deep furrows, reduce heavy jowls, and remove or redistribute fatty deposits under the skin. Overall, a face lift can help you look the best you can for your age by giving you a fresh, rejuvenated facial appearance.

Face lift surgery is the third most popular cosmetic surgery procedure. For the majority of people who undergo the surgery, it can seem to literally turn back the clock on the ageing process by reducing the effects of the environment, stress and time. Face lifts can be performed on the whole face (a full face lift) or just on the brow area, lower face, or neck only. Surgery typically lasts between 3 to 5 hours, but varies according to the intervention carried out. The surgery can also be carried out with other procedures such as eye lid surgery.

The effects of a face lift can last for around 7 to 10 years. Some people opt for minor corrective surgery in years following, in order to retain the benefits of their face lift surgery and investment.

How a face lift works for you will also depend on your expectations and emotional well-being. Your age, general health, gender, genetic and ethnic make-up, skin and bone structure as well as the environment in which you live can all affect the outcome of your face lift surgery. Your surgeon will examine all these factors in detail to determine the type of procedure that suits your needs and advise you of the best possible outcome of your face lift.

Why you might consider a face lift?

Face lifts are mostly carried out on people in their 40s, 50s, or 60s but the procedure has also been successful in older people.Younger people are advised to opt for non-surgical facial procedures such as a chemical peel or microdermabrasion.

As with any cosmetic surgery, you should think carefully about your expectations and have realistic goals. You need to be prepared for your new look and understand how it may affect your health and emotional well-being.

You may be considering a face lift if you have:

Mid-facial area that is sagging Visible furrows or creases below the lower eyelids Furrows in the skin along the nose extending to the corner of the mouth Fat that has fallen or is displaced Lack of muscle tone in the lower face which is contributing to heavier jowls Sagging skin and excess fatty deposits under the chin and jaw

Before considering a face lift, you need to be in good health preferably a non-smoker or prepared to stop smoking for a given period before and after your surgery you must have a positive, realistic approach to your surgery.

What face lift surgery wont do

Face lift surgery can only work on specific areas of your face. You can have other, complementary surgery in conjunction with your face lift to rejuvenate brows (brow lift) and eye lids (blepharoplasty). A face lift wont change your overall appearance. A facelift can only be performed surgically, but non-surgical rejuvenation treatments can be used to work on superficial facial lines and to improve skin texture.

The Consultation

The pre-operative consultation along with the immediate weeks before surgery are very important if you are to make the most of your face lift surgery. You will need this time to prepare yourself emotionally and physically.

Be honest and clear with your surgeon about what you expect the surgery to achieve. If you wish, provide photos of how you expect your facial appearance to be after surgery. Your surgeon will assess your expectations and advise you if they are attainable.

The surgeon will examine all aspects of your face such as your skin quality, fatty deposits, laxity, elasticity and bone structure. She/he will ask you detailed questions about your overall health, well-being, goals and your medical history. The surgeon forms a surgical plan based on this information.

Be prepared to supply information on and/or discuss:

Your expectations of the surgery Any medical conditions, drug allergies and medical treatments Use of current medications, vitamins, herbal supplements, alcohol, tobacco and drugs Any previous surgery Any family history that may be relevant to your facial characteristics

During the consultation, your surgeon is likely to:

Assess your general health Evaluate any health conditions Examine your entire face, assessing brows, skin laxity and so on Discuss the likely results of your surgery Discuss the value of and any complications of combining your face lift with other facial area surgery such as eye lid or brow lift surgery Take photographs for medical records Talk about the type of anaesthetic used and its effects

You may be asked in preparation for surgery to:

Take certain medications or adjust your current medications Have certain lab tests or further medical evaluation Refrain from smoking in advance of surgery Avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements as they can increase bleeding

Questions you should ask

It is important that you are fully informed of the after care, any possible complications and the likely results of your surgery. You will also need to know how the procedure is carried out, in particular where incisions are made and where any scarring is likely. Below is a checklist of some key questions to ask:

What type of face lift surgery is best for me and why? How do I best prepare for the operation? Do I need assistance in post-operative care? What results can I expect? What side effects or complications may occur? What discomfort will I have? How will my face look immediately post op? Are there any activities or environments I should avoid while I recover? How lasting can I expect the results to be? What other cosmetic procedures can I consider in conjunction with my face lift? What instructions should I follow after the operation?

What Happens during Surgery?

Surgery takes around 3 to 5 hours. The position and type of incisions depend on the type of face lift. The procedure can be performed under general anaesthetic or with a combination of mild sedatives and local anaesthetics, depending on the extent of the surgery and your surgeons recommendation.

Traditional face lift

The surgeon makes an incision at the hairline by the temples, just above and in front of the ear and then circles the lobe. The incision is placed where it will be least visible and most easily hidden along the hairline whilst for men it is positioned to retain their natural beard line. The skin is carefully separated from the underlying tissue and muscle. The surgeon then tightens the skin and muscle, repositions any connective tissue and may remove excess fatty deposits or excess skin. The skin is then raised upwards and outwards to the incision point, and any excess is trimmed off before the skin is closed using fine sutures, metal clips or stitches.

After surgery, you will have dressings applied to the entire incision area. You may have very fine plastic drainage tubes inserted into the incision area to ensure that blood and other fluids dont built up under the skin. Again, these are usually needed only for 48 hours.

The mini or limited face lift is an alternative to the full face lift that requires fewer and shorter incisions at the temples and around the ear lobes.

Neck lift

This corrects sagging jowls, loose neck skin and any fat accumulation under the chin. The incision here can still start at the front of the ear lobe, but will then go around behind the ear ending in the lower scalp area.

Recovery What to Expect

At first, you will experience some bruising, swelling and discomfort. Once the swelling subsides, you will begin to see your rejuvenated self. It takes varying amounts of time for face lift surgery to heal and for individuals to realise the benefits of their surgery.

You may find that one side of your face is more swollen than the other side, that you have facial numbness or that you have temporary asymmetry in your facial features for a while. These are common in the immediate post-operative period and usually correct themselves quickly once the healing process sets in. As a rule, stitches are removed a week after surgery.

Long-term care

You are asked to refrain from strenuous exercise for the first 8 weeks and any activity which requires straining, bending over and lifting as they actions may precipitate bleeding. Light to moderate activity should be avoided for up to 6 weeks.

The full results of your face lift may not be apparent for up to 3 months as swelling and bruising can take time to abate. It may also take up to 6 months for scar tissue to be less visible to all but close scrutiny. Be patient, as you will need time not only to see the results but also to adjust to your new appearance. But be alert to any abnormalities in the healing process and make an appointment with your surgeon should you have concerns.

Eye Lid Surgery Recovery

Should you decided to incorporate eye lid surgery with your face lift you will be advised to rest with your head in an elevated position to alleviate the swelling. You may need to use ice packs from time to time. Most painful swelling subsides in the first 48 hours. Bruising and/or discoloration may last up to 3 to 4 weeks, but you may be allowed to wear concealing make up 1 to 2 weeks after the operation.

Your surgeon will give you a comprehensive list of dos and donts to adhere to after your operation. These will include instructions on caring for the incisions and wounds, applying dressing and on your medication, and on any abnormal signs you should look out for. Smoking and exposure to sunlight are not recommended.

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Face Lift (Rhytidectomy) | Saint James Hospital Malta

Liposuction Types, Safety, Risks, Benefits –

Treatment Overview

Liposuction removes fat from your body using suction. During liposuction, small, thin, blunt-tipped tubes (cannula) are inserted through tiny cuts in the skin. Fat is suctioned out through these tubes as the doctor moves the tubes around under the skin to target specific fat deposits.

In recent years, improved techniques have made liposuction safer, easier, and less painful. These newer techniques include:

Liposuction is usually done as an outpatient procedure in a properly equipped doctor’s office, ambulatory surgery center, or hospital. In general, it does not require an overnight hospital stay unless a large volume of fat is being removed. Local anesthesia is used in some cases. And you may or may not be given a sedative to help you relax. If a large area or volume of fat is being treated, general anesthesia or deep sedation with a local anesthetic may be used.

After the procedure, the area of the body that was treated is firmly wrapped to help reduce swelling, bruising, and pain. Elastic bandages and tape, support hose (such as those used to treat varicose veins), a special girdle, or another type of firm-fitting garment may be used, depending on which part of the body was treated. You may have to wear the compression garment or wrap for 3 to 4 weeks. Expect a lot of bruising and swelling for at least the first 7 to 10 days.

Fluid may drain from the incision sites for several days. You may be given antibiotics to reduce the risk of infection.

Most people are able to get up and move around as soon as the treatment is finished and after the effects of the anesthesia and any sedation have worn off. You can return to your normal activities as soon as you feel comfortable, although this may take several days to a few weeks. Most people can return to work within a few days. Recovery may take longer if large areas were treated.

The main purpose of liposuction is to reshape one or more areas of your body, not to reduce body weight. Liposuction is typically used on “problem” areas that have not responded well to diet and exercise. These areas are often on the outer thighs and hips on women and the waist and back on men. The face, neck, abdomen, back, buttocks, legs, and upper arms are all commonly treated areas.

Liposuction is sometimes used in combination with other cosmetic surgery procedures, such as a “tummy tuck” (abdominoplasty), breast reduction, or face-lift.

Liposuction may also be used to treat certain medical conditions, including:

Liposuction is not used to treat obesity. It will not get rid of cellulite or stretch marks.

Liposuction is usually very effective at removing fat deposits in small areas. But if you regain weight after having liposuction, the fatty bulges that were removed are likely to return or may appear in a different place.

Some improvement in body contour is usually noticeable right after surgery. And improvement may continue for several weeks or even months as the swelling goes away. The full effects of having liposuction may not be visible for several months to a year.

Liposuction (except for laser liposuction) generally does not tighten the skin over the treated area. After fat has been removed, the skin around the area may be somewhat loose. It may take up to 6 months for the skin to tighten around the treated area. Some people’s skin is very elastic and retracts more quickly than other people’s skin. Younger skin tends to have greater elasticity than older skin.

People who expect liposuction to help them lose weight are usually disappointed.

Liposuction done by an experienced doctor in a properly equipped facility is usually safe. Having more than one area treated, or having a very large area treated, may increase the risk of complications during or after the procedure.

Common side effects of liposuction include:

Less common side effects include:

If you gain weight after having liposuction, your body may store the new fat in a different place than where you had fat cells removed. New fat can grow deep inside your body, around your organs, such as your heart or liver. This type of fat can be more harmful to your body than fat that is stored near the surface of your body, such as on your hips or thighs. So people who have liposuction need to be careful not to gain extra weight.

Although death is very rare with liposuction, it can happen. If you are having a large amount of fat removed, are obese, or have health problems, your risks go up. Possible complications include:

Liposuction should not be done in people who have severe heart problems, who have blood-clotting disorders (such as thrombophilia, a disorder in which the blood clots easily or excessively), or during pregnancy.

Liposuction should be done only by a doctor who has special training in liposuction and surgery of the skin and in how to respond to complications during surgery. You will also be at less risk for complications if liposuction is not done at the same time as other cosmetic procedures.

If you are trying to lose weight, liposuction is not a substitute for exercise and a balanced diet. In fact, most cosmetic surgeons agree that the best candidates for liposuction are healthy people who are at or close to a healthy weight but who have stubborn fat deposits that do not respond to exercise.

Complete the special treatment information form (PDF)(What is a PDF document?) to help you understand this treatment.

Stebbins WG, et al. (2012). Liposuction. In LA Goldsmith et al., eds., Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine, 8th ed., vol. 2, pp. 3041-3044. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. Accessed April 15, 2015.

ByHealthwise StaffPrimary Medical ReviewerAnne C. Poinier, MD – Internal MedicineAdam Husney, MD – Family MedicineSpecialist Medical ReviewerKeith A. Denkler, MD – Plastic Surgery

Current as ofMay 21, 2015

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Liposuction Types, Safety, Risks, Benefits –

plastic surgery procedures – KidsHealth

When you hear of plastic surgery, what do you think of? A Hollywood star trying to delay the effects of aging? People who want to change the size of their stomachs, breasts, or other body parts because they see it done so easily on TV?

Those are common images of plastic surgery, but what about the 4-year-old boy who has his chin rebuilt after a dog bit him? Or the young woman who has the birthmark on her forehead lightened with a laser?

Just because the name includes the word “plastic” doesn’t mean patients who have this surgery end up with a face full of fake stuff. The name isn’t taken from the synthetic substance but from the Greek word plastikos, which means to form or mold (and which gives the material plastic its name as well).

Plastic surgery is a special type of surgery that can change a person’s appearance and ability to function.

Most teens don’t, of course. But some do. Interestingly, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) reports a difference in the reasons teens give for having plastic surgery and the reasons adults do: Teens view plastic surgery as a way to fit in and look acceptable to friends and peers. Adults, on the other hand, frequently see plastic surgery as a way to stand out from the crowd.

According to the ASPS, more than 200,000 people 19 years and younger had either major or minor plastic surgical procedures in 2013.

Some people turn to plastic surgery to correct a physical defect or to alter a part of the body that makes them feel uncomfortable. For example, guys with a condition called gynecomastia (excess breast tissue) that doesn’t go away with time or weight loss may opt for reduction surgery. A girl or guy with a birthmark may turn to laser treatment to lessen its appearance.

Other people decide they want a cosmetic change because theyre not happy about the way they look. Teens who have cosmetic procedures such as otoplasty (surgery to pin back ears that stick out) or dermabrasion (a procedure that can help smooth or camouflage severe acne scars) sometimes feel more comfortable with their appearance after the procedure.

The most common procedures teens choose include nose reshaping, ear surgery, acne and acne scar treatment, and breast reduction.

Reconstructive surgery helps repair significant defects or problems. But what about having cosmetic surgery just to change your appearance? Is it a good idea for teens? As with everything, there are right and wrong reasons to have surgery.

Cosmetic surgery is unlikely to change your life. Most board-certified plastic surgeons spend a lot of time interviewing teens who want plastic surgery to decide if they are good candidates for the surgery. Doctors want to know that teens are emotionally mature enough to handle the surgery and that they’re doing it for the right reasons.

Many plastic surgery procedures are just that surgery. They involve anesthesia, wound healing, and other serious risks. Doctors who perform these procedures want to know that their patients are capable of understanding and handling the stress of surgery.

Some doctors won’t perform certain procedures (like rhinoplasty) on a teen until they are sure that person is old enough and has finished growing. For rhinoplasty, that means about 15 or 16 for girls and about a year older for guys.

Girls who want to enlarge their breasts for cosmetic reasons usually must be at least 18 because saline implants are only approved for women 18 and older. In some cases, though, such as when there’s a tremendous size difference between the breasts or one breast has failed to grow at all, a plastic surgeon may get involved earlier.

Here are a few things to think about if you’re considering plastic surgery:

If you’re considering plastic surgery, talk it over with your parents. If you’re serious and your parents agree, the next step is meeting with a plastic surgeon to help you learn what to expect before, during, and after the procedure as well as any possible complications or downsides to the surgery. Depending on the procedure, you may feel some pain as you recover, and temporary swelling or bruising can make you look less like yourself for a while.

Procedures and healing times vary, so you’ll want to do your research into what’s involved in your particular procedure and whether the surgery is reconstructive or cosmetic. It’s a good idea to choose a doctor who is certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgery.

Cost will likely be a factor, too. Elective plastic surgery procedures can be expensive. Although medical insurance covers many reconstructive surgeries, the cost of cosmetic procedures almost always comes straight out of the patient’s pocket.

Your parents can find out what your insurance plan will and won’t cover. For example, breast enlargement surgery is considered a purely cosmetic procedure and is rarely covered by insurance. But breast reduction surgery may be covered by some plans because large breasts can cause physical discomfort and even pain for many girls.

Plastic surgery isn’t something to rush into. If you’re thinking about plastic surgery, find out as much as you can about the specific procedure you’re considering and talk it over with doctors and your parents. Once you have the facts, you can decide whether the surgery is right for you.

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plastic surgery procedures – KidsHealth

Florida Labiaplasty & Vaginoplasty | Dana Goldberg MD

With one of the best female plastic surgeons in Florida, its easy to see why we’ve become a leader in labiaplasty surgery.We see many patients who feel self-conscious about an enlarged or asymmetriclabia. Somehave discomfortrelated to an enlarged labia that make it difficult to wear tight pants, exercise, ridea bike, or enjoy intercourse. Otherpatients experiencevaginal looseness as a result of childbearing, trauma, or aging. There may be a loss of muscle tone and stretching of the vaginal opening, which may interfere with sexual relations.

Fortunatley,labiaplastyand clitoral hood reductionsurgery can improve both the appearance and symptoms related due to over-sized or asymmetriclabiaor clitoral hood, and vaginal rejuvenation surgery or lasercan tighten the vaginal walls and opening.

Our patients are often excited to find out that clitoral hood reduction andLabiaplasty surgeriesare usually done in the office with oral medication to manage discomfort and anxiety if needed. Becauseoral sedation is used,labiaplasty surgery costs can be far lower than labiaplasty surgery isperformed under general anesthesia.Vaginal rejuvenation surgery can often be achieved with non surgical or office based surigical tightening. However, full tightening of the vaginal canal usually done at an outpatient surgery center under general anesthesia or IV sedation.

After labiaplasty surgery or clitoral hood reduction, there will be discomfort and swelling for 1-2 weeks, which is controlled with prescription pain medication. This is similar to recovering from an episiotomy. Depending on your job you may be able to go back to work in as few as two of three days. Stitches dissolve on their own within a few weeks after labia reduction or clitoral hood lift surgery. You should also refrain from resuming strenuous activities for 4-6 weeks after labiaplasty or clit hood reduction surgery. The final result is seen as early as 6 weeks, although for some patients it can take 2-3 months for swelling to resolve.

Some women are born with an enlarged labia minora (inner lips) or labia majora (outer lips), and somenotie a change in the size, shape, or color of thelabia after childbirth, trauma, or with aging. We often see patients who experience embarrassment and discomfort in tight clothing, with exercise, and with sexual intercourse.

Dr. Dana uses labiaplasty surgery to reduce the size of the labia to alleviate discomfort and improve the appearance of the labia. The labiaplasty surgery can be extended to the clitoral hood to provide a clitoral hood lift without a change to the nerves using techniques designed to produce minimal scarring. In most cases, the scars cannot even be seen after 4-6 weeks. You will likely have swelling and discomfort for a few days to weeks after labia or vaginal rejuvenation surgery.

Surgical tightening of the muscles near the entrance of the vagina (called the introitus) can often be done in the office with similar recoery to labiaplasty. This can help women whose muscles have been injured in childbirth leading to a weak or widened vaginal opening. Other patients experience stretching and weakness of the entire vaginal canal, which can be tightened with a surgery under general anesthesia.

Our Femtouch laser isan alternative to surgery for some patients and can be used in addition to surgery for others to maximize reuslts. Laser stimulates collagen and improves blood flow to the vaginal lining, which can improve vaginal atrophy. It can also improve the texture and color of the labia minora or majora.Our patients have seen improvements in vaginal tightness and an improvementin incontinence,although severe cases might require more invasive treatments. Patients also notice a significant improvement in symptoms of vaginal atrophy, like improved moisture and decreased discomfort with intercourse.The laser treatment involves a ten minute in office procedure with no time needed off work and only 2-3 days avoidance of intercourse. Most patients have 2-3 treatments about 1-2 months apart and then maintain with a yearly treatment.

Any surgery, including vaginal surgery, labia surgery, and clitoral hood reduction surgeies carry a risk of infection or bleeding. Serious infection and bleeding are extremely rare with labiaplasty and clitoral hood reductions. Additional risks with include asymmetry, delayed wound healing, injury to nerves and blood vessels, injury to the colon (with vaginoplasty), and excessive scarring. Internal vaginal laser has been associated with temporary discomfort but not with more serious complications.

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Florida Labiaplasty & Vaginoplasty | Dana Goldberg MD

Breast Reduction: Procedure, Risks, Benefits, Recovery

Surgery Overview

Breast reduction surgery (reduction mammoplasty)Breast reduction surgery (reduction mammoplasty) removes some of the tissue and skin from the breasts to reshape and reduce the size of the breasts. It can also make the area of dark skin surrounding the nipple (areola) smaller.

To remove tissue and skin from the breast, the surgeon first makes one or more cuts in the breast. After the excess tissue and skin have been removed, the skin is closed with stitches. Sometimes the nipple and areola have to be removed and repositioned.

Sometimes liposuction is used along with surgery. If most of the breast is fatty tissue and if excess skin isn’t a problem, liposuction alone may be enough for breast reduction.

Breast reduction surgery is done in a hospital or surgical center, typically with general anesthesia. The surgery usually takes 3 to 5 hours. An overnight stay is not usually required. For smaller reductions, the surgery may be done with local anesthesia.

Breast lift (mastopexy)Breast lift (mastopexy) is similar to a breast reduction, except that in some cases only skin is removed. A breast lift can raise sagging or drooping breasts, which is a common problem with large, heavy breasts, and can elevate the nipple and areola.

Immediately after surgery, gauze is placed over the incisions, and the breasts are wrapped in an elastic bandage or supported with a special surgical bra. In some cases, there may be a small tube in each breast to help drain blood and fluid for the first couple of days. Stitches may be removed in 1 to 2 weeks.

Most women have some breast pain for the first few days after surgery and then milder discomfort for a week or longer. Medicine can help relieve the pain. Swelling and bruising may last for several weeks. Wearing a surgical bra 24 hours a day can help reduce swelling and support the breasts while they heal.

You will likely resume your normal work and social activities within a couple of weeks, unless those activities involve heavy lifting or strenuous exercise. You may need to avoid more vigorous exercise and activities for 3 to 4 weeks or more. It’s important to wear a bra that supports the breasts well, such as a sports or athletic bra.

You will have visible scars on your breasts after breast reduction surgery. These are almost always in areas that can be covered by a bra or swimsuit. Scars may fade over time, but they will not disappear.

Breast reduction surgery is done to change the size, weight, firmness, and shape of the breasts. You may decide to have breast reduction surgery to:

Women who have breast reduction surgery are often extremely satisfied. It can make the breasts smaller, firmer, lighter, and more evenly proportioned. It usually relieves the physical discomfort and pain caused by large breasts.

The results of breast reduction surgery are considered permanent. But the breasts may become larger or their shape may change as a result of pregnancy, weight gain, or weight loss.

The most common risks of breast reduction surgery include:

Less commonly, damage to the breast’s blood supply may occur during surgery. This may delay the skin’s healing process. Loss of part or all of the nipple and areola can also occur, but this is not common.

Other risks of surgery include:

These risks can be serious or even life-threatening, but they rarely occur.

Keep in mind that breast reduction may make breastfeeding difficult or impossible in the future. Some women may still be able to breastfeed after having reduction surgery.

If you are thinking about having a breast reduction, contact your insurance company. Some insurance companies cover some or all of the costs of breast reduction surgery if surgery is being done to relieve back pain, skin problems, or other medical problems caused by large or heavy breasts. They typically will not cover breast reduction surgery being done solely to change the appearance of the breasts, because it is not considered a medically necessary procedure when done for this reason.

Complete the surgery information form (PDF)(What is a PDF document?) to help you prepare for this surgery.

ByHealthwise StaffPrimary Medical ReviewerAnne C. Poinier, MD – Internal MedicineSpecialist Medical ReviewerKeith A. Denkler, MD – Plastic Surgery

Current as ofFebruary 20, 2015

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Breast Reduction: Procedure, Risks, Benefits, Recovery

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